What fan for the automotive industry at present?
What to buy a gift for fans of the automotive industry? Contrary to appearances, the possibilities are really a lot. We can decide to choose the professional literature, which concerns a favorite of the recipient by the model or brand of the car. When you want to select a small gift, certainly a great idea is to choose a key ring or other gadget that the person receiving the gift from us can be attached to keys to the car. Very nice idea on the web, but also a fun gift for a fan of the automotive industry is a shirt with an appropriate inscription. Here we can choose a really different graphics and manufacture of t-shirts with fun prints more than one person can really surprise. This t-shirt is a cool gift for a friend, brother or boyfriend.
Water-cooled engines contain passages
The base of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is the engine block, which is typically made of cast iron or aluminium. The engine block contains the cylinders. In engines with more than one cylinder they are usually arranged either in 1 row (straight engine) or 2 rows (boxer engine or V engine); 3 rows are occasionally used (W engine) in contemporary engines, and other engine configurations are possible and have been used. Single cylinder engines are common for motorcycles and in small engines of machinery. Water-cooled engines contain passages in the engine block where cooling fluid circulates (the water jacket). Some small engines are air-cooled, and instead of having a water jacket the cylinder block has fins protruding away from it to cool by directly transferring heat to the air. The cylinder walls are usually finished by honing to obtain a cross hatch, which is better able to retain the oil. A too rough surface would quickly harm the engine by excessive wear on the piston.
The pistons are short cylindrical parts which seal one end of the cylinder from the high pressure of the compressed air and combustion products and slide continuously within it while the engine is in operation. The top wall of the piston is termed its crown and is typically flat or concave. Some two-stroke engines use pistons with a deflector head. Pistons are open at the bottom and hollow except for an integral reinforcement structure (the piston web). When an engine is working the gas pressure in the combustion chamber exerts a force on the piston crown which is transferred through its web to a gudgeon pin. Each piston has rings fitted around its circumference that mostly prevent the gases from leaking into the crankcase or the oil into the combustion chamber. A ventilation system drives the small amount of gas that escape past the pistons during normal operation (the blow-by gases) out of the crankcase so that it does not accumulate contaminating the oil and creating corrosion. In two-stroke gasoline engines the crankcase is part of the air?fuel path and due to the continuous flow of it they do not need a separate crankcase ventilation system.
There are several possible ways to classify internal combustion engines.
By number of strokes
Clerk Cycle 1879 6
Four-stroke engine (Otto cycle)
By type of ignition
Spark-ignition engine (commonly found as gasoline engines)
By mechanical/thermodynamical cycle (these 2 cycles do not encompass all reciprocating engines, and are infrequently used):
The following jet engine types are also gas turbines types: